I’ve been a strong proponent of the street photographer James Jowers for a number of years now. This became more public knowledge when I wrote an article for the 22nd issue of tmrw magazine which was later posted on the tmrw site. Now I’m pleased to see that my first ever Wikipedia citation involves his great work as my article has been mentioned as a source on the site’s List of Street Photographers page. If you’d like to read the article you can do so here.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #23.
Gandhi’s rocking tie-dye. Justin Trudeau’s in leathers. Einstein’s inked up. They are icons as we’ve never seen them. They are Amit Shimoni’s HIPSTORY project.
What started as the Tel-Aviv based illustrator’s final academy project has snowballed into something greater as his reimagined portraits help maintain the legacies of these icons in the digital age. When deciding his initial portraits Amit had a strict criteria to ensure his work didn’t become iconoclastic caricatures.
“My first characters were the great leaders of the 20th century, people with great ideologies like Nelson Mandela, MLK, and Gandhi.”
And although they may have been chosen for their ideologies, HIPSTORY has no political agenda, wishing to cheer the person instead of the politics. Though they had often been revered as figures who had all their answer, through HIPSTORY, Amit attempts to use their reverence to ask questions about his own generation.
“I often find myself wondering how different my generation, Y generation, is from the generation of these great leaders of modern history. How different their belief system, the way they thought and what motivated them, compared to our more self-centered generation which is in a constant chase after fashion, style and trends as a way of self-expression while steering away from the big ideologies and meanings of life.
I wanted HIPSTORY to re-imagine these great leaders and place them in a different time and culture - ours. I wanted to create a sort of mirror - a mirror that on the one hand is supposed to make one smile, but on the other, to make them also think.”
An artist truly inspired by the world around him, be it a “Van Gogh piece or a song heard on the radio”, the hipster had always been a subculture of particular interest for Amit, and he has his own idea on what it entails.
“Hipster is not a specific fashion way of dressing or acting like most people would say. How I see it, it reflects the imbalance the Y generation is experiencing - while everybody around is trying hard to be more unique, in reality, it seems everybody is more and more of the same. When I am asked if I’m a Hipster I reply I’m a part of this generation”.
This idea of confirmed uniqueness is echoed in his work, as although each figure have their own distinct style, they wouldn’t look out of place amongst the customers of any independent coffee bar in any major city around the world. There are flourishes of the characters historical identity within each piece, but they only play a minor role, perhaps as not to deter from the questions Amit is attempting to pose. Barrack Obama is sporting a tattoo of a whale, in reference to Herman Melville’s Moby Dick, his favourite book whilst Einstein’s ink celebrates his scientific achievement with his theory of relatively on his neck and a statue of Alfred Nobel on his forearm.
With a new portrait released each month, Amit is keen for HIPSTORY to remain an ongoing project and uses his growing social media profile and international acclaim to source new figures.
“I try keeping the series as international as possible so I take leaders from all around the world. Sometimes I ask my followers “who should be next?” or via my website, hipstoryart.com, there is a place for people to suggest and recommend.
Some characters were born by request of my followers like Princess Diana and Kim Jong Un and some were in a more formal way. The Hilary Clinton portrait was requested by the New York Times, Putin by one of the leading TV channels in Russia and last year I asked by the campaign manager of Erna Solberg, the prime minister of Norway, to hipstorize Erna as part of her election campaign.”
The fact that Erna won the election could be in small part due to the work of Amit’s portrait. Through his work he continues to draw a global audience to history’s greats, providing questions and smiles in equal measure.
“The reactions around HIPSTORY are very positive, I think HIPSTORY speaks in an international language. I get many supporting emails from people around the world which is very heart-warming. The emails go all the way from a teacher telling me how HIPSTORY changed the way the students listen in history class, to emails from businessman how tell me how HIPSTORY "breaks the ice" when people come for meetings”.
Seeing history through an updated lens, we’re able to contemplate their legacies and at the same time discuss the ones we hope to leave behind. Hopefully ours will bring the same sort of joy that Amit’s portraits have brought the world.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #23.
In 2006 Twitter’s founder, Jack Dorsey, composed the first ever tweet. It read “just setting up my twittr”. In 2018 the 45th President Of the United States Of America, Donald Trump, bragged about his ability to cause a nuclear holocaust: “North Korean Leader Kim Jong Un just stated that the “Nuclear Button is on his desk at all times.” Will someone from his depleted and food starved regime please inform him that I too have a Nuclear Button, but it is a much bigger & more powerful one than his, and my Button works!”. From an innovative start up beloved by hipsters, it’s now a character limited way for American’s biggest character to receive the world’s undivided attention. We’ve come a long way.
In Trump’s adoption of the platform in March 2009, we were given access into the life of a billionaire who had achieved one of his greatest goals: fame. In a media career that had been boosted by tabloid chatter, primetime television shows and surreal appearances at much loved events like the F.A Cup draw and Wrestlemania 23, he now had the ability to get his image out to the masses whenever he wanted with just a smartphone.
For the first couple of years at least, there was noted constraint. Like many celebrities who had joined the platform in its infancy, his online brand was carefully managed and cultivated by a team of underlings. Looking back at his early timeline it is a real juxtaposition to what we see today. Whether it was promoting a TV appearance (“Be sure to tune in and watch Donald Trump on Late Night with David Letterman as he presents the Top Ten List tonight!”) or plugging his various books the same type of tweet was sent. They were bland. BORING! even. Less mahogany orange, more magnolia. Devoid of any discernible character or personality it jars with the larger than life persona that we’ve come to know and indeed the one he spent decades trying to create.
His next year carried on much the same, publicising theatre trips (‘Melania and I saw American Idiot on Broadway last night and it was great. An amazing theatrical experience!’) and sending well wishes to his celebrity friends. In fact it wasn’t until 2011 that we started to witness the precursor to the Donald. You see, offline he’d started to become more and more political. Now a Fox News regular, he was a vocal proponent of the Obama “birther” conspiracies and regularly took aim at representatives from both major parties. So disenchanted with national politics, he flirted with the idea of a Presidential bid in 2012 before deciding it wasn’t the right time for him. He was starting to make big waves but to the 300,000 people who followed him on Twitter at the time he was quiet. Again he was only using his online profile as a way to promote his offline media work. Twitter was just an amplifier, not the live mic. That was soon about to change.
We can pinpoint when the shift occurred. Wednesday, July 6, 2011, at 10:38 AM. “Congress is back.TIME TO CUT, CAP AND BALANCE.There is no revenue problem.The Debt Limit cannot be raised until Obama spending is contained.” This was the beginning. The genesis of the Donald. Everything we’ve come to expect in just 140 characters. The alarmist tone. Mid-stream capitals. Of course we’ve seen some evolution in his style since then. In this instance his points are still coherent. The fractured syntax and personal attacks come later. It may have been a gestation period that rivals an elephant, but it had finally come to pass. The birth of Trump on Twitter.
From then we’ve seen him launch himself headfirst into conspiracies, engineer friendships with fascists and teach his audience of 31 million followers at the time the joys of learning new words (“Despite the constant negative press covfefe.”). The rise of social media has helped turned the world into a 24/7 episode of The Truman Show with a cast of over 7 billion. With Trump’s new online presence he’s given himself top billing. And with the help of the U.S electorate, this may now mean something.
As Sean Spicer, the President’s first press secretary pointed out, Trump “is the President of the United States,” and so his tweets are “considered official statements by the President of the United States”. So every bad word against a company is the view of the United States and its people. Every personal attack against an actor or actress is the view of the United States and its people. When he eventually decides he’s had enough and declares all-out war on millions of people and promises that fire and brimstone will rain down upon them until they become just smudges on a map, history will see this as the view of the United States and its people.
From the beginning it was obvious his time in power was going to be different. He is the first commander-in-chief never to have held government or military office. He’s changed party allegiance five times. He has confounded the opinion of the political elite and this was all made possible because of social media. As he put it in an interview with Financial Times, with more than 101 million followers on social media he can get across any message he wants, whether the media is fake or not. And the worst thing is, we cannot look away. We’re Pavlov’s dog, salivating at his feed.
With the world’s collective eyes now trained on his next burst of 280 characters we can now only hope for some form of redemption. To leave behind a legacy that is something more than the President who spawned a thousand think pieces. He could use his unique voice for to shine a light on the good. He could bring much needed publicity to great charity work and champion the underdog. Maybe then his time on Twitter and perhaps his legacy would be a little bit less SAD.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #22.
A mechanical metropolis, the New York skyline provides a lasting impression to all that have witnessed it. Providing a backdrop to countless TV and film productions it’s a landscape that is burned into our collective consciousness. At one point in time those famed skyscrapers were brand new and New York was changing. That was Berenice Abbott’s Changing New York.
Born in Springfield, Ohio in 1898, Abbott grew up modestly, raised by her single mother. She later enrolled at Ohio State University to study journalism. Within a two-week period Abbott had befriended Sue Jenkins and already become disenchanted with the university system. Obviously the joys of Freshers Fairs and ‘Where’s Wally?’ Nights had yet to become the custom, so it is understandable. Her friend Jenkins soon left the university to move to New York. She encouraged Abbott to join her, even loaning her the $20 train fare needed to get there. On arrival in New York she was adopted by a bohemian demi-monde, which included Man Ray and Marcel Duchamp, the pioneering leaders of the Dada movement, the popular artistic movement at the time. During these early years she worked several menial jobs and developed an interest in sculpture. Although she had built up a series of influential connections her sculptures were not proving to be as profitable as she hoped.
Growing tired of New York, she purchased a one-way ticket to Paris in the hope that the French population were happier to open their portefeuilles. They were not. After a year she moved to Berlin before later returning to the French capital, where she had a chance reunion with her old friend Man Ray. He expressed his difficulties finding a good darkroom assistant. Requiring someone without knowledge of photography, one he could shape and mould – the perfect description of Abbott at the time. She was given the job and so began her storied photography career. Initially Abbott had no intention of becoming anything but a good darkroom assistant but as she conducted her tasks she soon found herself enjoying the art of photography. She quickly set off on her own, spending her breaks discovering the photographic techniques which would become synonymous with her work. Paying Man Ray for supplies she soon began to build up clientele that rivalled his. This caused arguments between the pair with Berenice resigning from her post as a result. Financed by donations from the socialites of the time she converted part of her home into a studio and took head shots of local celebrities including Coco Chanel and James Joyce. In Paris her work flourished, but this time was soon to come to an end.
In 1929, after reading of the recent developments back in her homeland, Berenice returned to New York. What she found astounded her. The city had grown tremendously, with its landscape rapidly transformed. Inspired by the photography of the great Eugène Atget, whose work she tirelessly championed, she sought to chronicle the aesthetic evolution of her surroundings. And so began the start of what would become her magnum opus, Changing New York. Seen as an ode to her French hero, for several years she financed the series herself, taking jobs as a photography teacher as well as commercial jobs to get by. But with money tight due to the onset of Great Depression she soon realised she didn’t have the financial capabilities to give her project the conclusion it deserved.
Dedicated to continuing her chronological crusade she applied and received funding from the Federal Arts Project in the form of a monthly salary of $145, a number of assistants, a secretary and a car. Now working with a team, she was able to devote herself to the project. It soon developed to becoming a sociological study embedded within a modernist aesthetic medium as she documented the city’s changing urban landscape. Focusing primarily on architectural details and shot from at times dizzying perspectives, the images provide a remarkably thorough record of the city at the time. She eschewed the pointlessly pretty in favour of what she described as the “fantastic” contrasts between an old and the new. Like all good things though, this couldn’t go on forever. Fours years and 305 photographs later the FAP funding was depleted and Abbott decided to conclude this chapter of her life, moving into scientific photography.
Berenice Abbot died in 1991, leaving behind an astounding legacy that spanned decades and mediums. Regarded as a feminist icon before that was even a thing she once remarked that "The world doesn't like independent women, why, I don't know, but I don't care". The embodiment of independence, she single-handedly brought Atget’s work to the masses as well as produced what Ralph Steiner described as "the greatest collection of photographs of New York City ever made". A big win for independent women everywhere.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #22.
Bryan Ferry of Roxy Music once likened the feeling of being in love to a drug. In a way he was right. On a chemical level scientists have discovered that the brain reacts a similar way. On an emotional level a clear connection between the two can be made: an intoxicating high that you never want to end, both produce a feeling that is quick to get addicted and gets even harder to stop. Your heart is going 100 miles an hour and it’s hard to stop. Sometimes things can get messy. Other times it can be clean and methodical. When it all ends you’re left with just the memories and the mementos forever reminding you of a happier time. Then you’re stuck with the tough decision of whether to throw them away. If you’ve never been able to take that next step, don’t fear as there is an alternative available.
The Museum of Broken Relationships exhibits the wreckage of lost love; the black boxes of a once happy relationship. On show are everyday objects submitted by ordinary people from around the world who have gone through the pain of a breakup. It is an ever expanding time capsule, filled with physical reminders of a time of late night kisses, early morning walks and plans for the future that have been left unfulfilled. Looking through the collection provides a voyeuristic glimpse into people at their most emotionally raw; people that have loved and lost. The most mundane of tokens, be it a key ring, a Zippo lighter or a bottle opener become emotional beacons as the donor showcases the range of emotions that brought them to this day.
Next to each item are a few words written by the anonymous donor. Some a few sentences, others practically prose like. Each one a powerful short story covering a full spectrum of emotions. The tales of the jilted and bitter, the nostalgic, and the relieved are all on show.
Like Hemingway’s famous six-word stories, sometimes those that speak the least hit home the most. One person manages to describe the decline and eventual break up of their marriage with just sixteen words and an iron; “This iron was used to iron my wedding suit. Now it is the only thing left”. Another uses a simple blue Frisbee to detail an ex’s shortcomings; “Darling, should you ever get a ridiculous idea to walk into a cultural institution like a museum for the first time in your life, you will remember me”. From the outsider these short descriptions provide a snapshot into a person’s own little world, whilst donating an item provides the person with a moment of cathartic respite and perhaps the opportunity to find some closure on that particular chapter in their life.
The Museum of Broken Relationships itself was conceived due to a breakup. In 2006 two Croatian artists, Olinka Vištica and Dražen Grubišić, who having split up, were ready to discard the tokens of their love affair – the small gifts, the photos – but decided that instead their time together should be celebrated. At first they asked their friends to submit pieces to the initial collection which was first exhibited that year at the Croatian Artists’ Union’s annual salon. Originally designed to be a one off artistic event, the project received such an overwhelming response from the public that it’s transformed into something far greater than both its creators could ever imagine. The original collection has been on tour to 33 cities in 21 countries and they now have two permanent residences, with the first museum opening in Zagreb in 2010 and in 2016 they cracked America with a second home in LA. Rather poetically that this second home has taken the residence of an iconic Hollywood Boulevard lingerie shop that went bankrupt. In future years we may even see an item once bought there make its return.
The Museum Of Broken Relationships as an institution is a confusing one. Its mere premise suggests a collection of artefacts that revel in the world’s heartache, but in its actual existence we can gleam something a lot more positive. Each item is in there because at one point in time its owner felt some form of love, no matter how fleeting. Be it just one day or forty years, they shared a moment in time with somebody. If we’re dealing in tawdry clichés they had a connection. In Rocky Balboa, the eponymous hero talks about how life isn’t about how hard you can hit, it’s about how hard you can get hit and keep going. Exploring The Museum Of Broken Relationships isn’t about gaining some form of schadenfreudian joy, it’s about reacting to the ups and downs of life and making sure no matter the emotions attached, you always have something to show for it.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #22.
Christmas lists can be tough. Here at tmrw we like to make things easier for you so we’ve rounded a selection of exciting brands and products that look good under any tree.
Sandqvist – SANDQVIST X VÈLOSOPHY Backpack
Creating an aesthetic that is both luxurious and multi-functional, Sandqvist’s collaboration with Swedish bicycle manufacturers Vélosophy on a 3-way backpack has created a bag of the future. Able to be carried as a backpack, briefcase or shoulder bag, it’s the commuter’s dream and with a highly durable water-resistant EcomadeCorduraRipstop combined with leather details it’s an item that will make your daily commute that bit more bearable.
Mulberry - Small Amberley Satchel
Mulberry is a name built on its bags. In 2007 they went through a Renaissance, moving from trusted briefcase and wallet maker into an international fashion powerhouse. They’ve still retained their British design qualities, best exemplified in their Small Amberley Satchel. Designed to be worn on the shoulder or hands-free across the body, it borrows it’s soon to be iconic shape from equestrian styling.
Herschel - Little America Backpack
Herschel Supply Co’s work is inspired by vintage mountaineering equipment, American heritage and world travel. There is no bag that embodies their work more than their Little America Backpack. The popular mountaineering silhouette is retained and brought to a new generation, complete with the modern functionality we’ve come to expect from the Vancouver based couture company.
Asket - Merino Cashmere Scarf
The cold can be difficult sometimes. With the need to combine layers clashing with your desire to look your best at all times, a stylish scarf can be seen as a Godsend. Swedish woollen heroes Asket have your back (and neck) with their Cashmere-Merino wool scarf. Generously sized and woven from the finest of wool blends it is the ultimate cold weather companion. So stylish, you’ll be begging summer never comes.
Uniqlo - Womens Blocktech Trench Coat
Led by the French icon of design, Christophe Lemaire, Japanese brand Uniqlo are reinventing the basics, with the results being anything but. In their attempts to reinvent the women’s trench coat they’ve created something that is perfect for all weathers. Both windproof and water-repellent, with innovative thermobonded tape and mesh panelling it’ll always keep the outfit underneath looking on point.
Uniqlo – Mens Chesterfield Coat
A high quality Chesterfield coat should be in every man’s wardrobe. You’ll be hard pressed to find one better than Uniqlo’s recent offering. A wool/cashmere blend that’ll never leave you feeling cold, the Japanese retailer have set a new standard in outerwear. Available in four colours it’s perfect for layering with different outfits meaning you’ll always be able to show it off.
Superdry - Double Zip Tweed Fuji Hooded Jacket
Superdry men’s double zip tweed Fuji hooded jacket. A strikingly stylish combination of tweed heritage styling in this puffer Fuji jacket. Featuring a double zip for keeping wind chill at bay and two front zipped pockets. The hood has an adjustable bungee cord, the sleeves feature elasticated cuffs for keeping warmth in and rain out. The double zip tweed Fuji hooded jacket is finished with a Superdry logo patch on the sleeve.
Lacoste – Men's Lacoste Live Indiana Texturized Trainers
Lacoste are a brand that are effortlessly cool. When you spot the famous crocodile logo, you know it’s going to be a piece you fall in love with. The Lacoste Live Indiana textured trainers are your next shoe crush. Available in a rich dark purple colour, they’ll bring that extra bit of style to the streets.
Lacoste – Women's L.12.12 Unlined Leather Trainers
There are some items that brands become synonymous with. Lacoste and polo shirts is one of them. Designed by the company’s founder, seven-time Grand Slam champion René Lacoste in 1926 to circumnavigate uncomfortable Tennis wear, it’s developed into a style icon. So much so that it’s inspiring other Lacoste pieces including their women’s L.12.12 shoes. The timeless trainers feature pearlised leather uppers and a debossed collar, the perfect embodiment of René’s early work.
Converse – Women's Chuck Taylor X Mara Hoffman Full Radial
Becoming the staple footwear of choice of a number of different subcultures and tribes over the years, Converse have had to update their classic design to fit with the times. The iconic aesthetic is given a catwalk ready makeover courtesy of Brooklyn’s very own Mara Hoffman. Incorporating her trademark vibrancy with a unique 3D pattern, she’s created wearable art that will always make a statement.
Converse – Men's Converse X John Varvatos Chuck II Herringbone Stripe Low Top
Need some rock ‘n’ roll in your life but don’t have time to learn an instrument? With the Converse x John Varvatos Chuck Taylor All Star Vintage Seersucker you can get the look without putting in the hours. With the washed linen upper juxtaposing the supple trim, it doesn’t walk the line between laid-back and luxury, it struts.
I love Ugly - Textured Zespy Pant Mid Rise Charcoal
Since 2011, the Auckland based design collective I Love Ugly have had just one mission: to convert what others think ugly to something beautiful. Drawing on aesthetic sensibilities found all across the creative spectrum, they’re recognised as the brand that celebrates beauty in all forms. Their classic Zespy trouser has been given mature makeover, with a regular crotch design making them easy to get about in. With a unique fabric made from Polyester, rayon and elastane I Love Ugly have brought an air of sophistication to the trousers that have made them famous.
Burberry - Check Detail Cotton Oxford Shirt
An Oxford shirt should be a wardrobe staple. It is often tough to find a top quality one but we think Burberry have cracked it. Cut for a regular fit, their soft cotton example brings the classic shirt style with the subtle flair Burberry have come to be known for. This is highlighted with checked detailing on the cuffs. In other hands too much check could become garish. Burberry find the sweet spot though, producing a shirt full of understated brilliance.
Luke - Noir Military Shacket
LUKE is a practical interpretation on contemporary mensweardrawing strong influences from their Birmingham surroundings. On a mission to put a fashionable twist on any men’s garment but without sacrificing the strong masculine look. Their classic noir military shacket is simple and to the point. It’s simple. It’s comfy. It’s black. It’s all you need.
Komono - The Walther
Founded in Belgium in 2009 by RafMaes and Anton Janssens, KOMONO bring sleek designand a minimalist aesthetic to the world of accessories. The Walther black mesh watch is a prime example of the minimalist philosophy in action. Boasting optimal detail, precision and sophistication, they’ve given a contemporary twist to the traditional watch. If a watch can indeed be timeless, this is it.
Google Pixel 2 XL
Google are back and ready to take on their biggest rival in the high-stake smartphone wars. With a snazzy update on the previous Pixel Models, the Pixel 2 XL brings your world to life with a fantastic camera and a 6-inch screen to display it on. There’s also the artificial-intelligence powered Google Lens that gain information about your surroundings in real time. The future is here and it’s in your pocket.
Prynt Mint Smartphone Pocket Photo Print
Are you an avid traveller with a phone full of memories? With the Prynt Pocket you can now bring those photos to life. It attaches directly to your smartphone, converting it into an instant camera that lets you print and share life’s everyday moments. With the Prynt app you can even relive videos from your snaps using augmented reality.
Being unable to find your phone is one of the biggest minor panics of the modern age. The Tile Slim looks to eradicate this burning issue with Bluetooth technology and sleek design. Attached to the back of your phone and just 2.44 mm thick you’ll soon forget the Tile Slim is there and with a battery life of a year it’ll always be there for you and your phone.
Super Nintendo Classic
Nostalgia is a wonderful thing. Remember a simpler time before 4K High definition graphics and long sweeping storylines, when the platformer was king and the high score was your ultimate goal. Nintendo remembers those times and with the release of their Super Nintendo Classic they want you to experience them all over again. Enjoy Super Mario Kart and Street Fighter II all over again.
Anker Bluetooth Speaker
Anker was created with a single goal in mind: to make the smart life easier. They’ve mastered that with their easy to use Bluetooth Speaker. Although there’s a clear focus on function there’s no compromise on quality. Full bodied sounds wherever you are.
Crosley Messenger Turntable
Vinyl is back and the players are looking better than ever. At the forefront of record player design is Crosley, who bring the style and musical format of a bygone era into the 21st Century. With their Crosley Messenger you can now play your records on the go with its lightweight body housed in a sturdy shoulder pack and three-speed spinning powered by batteries. Being portable lets you take it on an adventure of musical exploration.
Uncommon Type by Tom Hanks
Everyone loves Tom Hanks. In an age where our heroes are being unmasked as predatory creeps, he is Hollywood’s shining light; the last bastion of everything that is good and pure in the world. He is Forrest Gump. He is Woody. He is the grown up version of the kid from ‘Big’. He is also an avid collector of typewriters and now a published author. In his first collection of short stories, Hanks treats us seventeen wonderful stories filled with the warmth and whimsy we’d expect from the great man.
With 250,000 possible ways to order a burger, it’s hard to narrow it down to just one Five Guys recommendation. Five Guys have been available in the UK since 2013, and since then your local high street has not been the same since. Offering prime beef patties with all the fresh accompaniments you could ever need, you’d have to eat at Five Guys every day for 684 years to complete the menu, and we can’t think of anything better.
Primal Pantry – Cocoa Brownie Protein
Here at tmrw we love a good chocolate brownie. And if we can find one that is also healthy, then more the better. We think the guys over at Primal Pantry have done what was once thought impossible – they’ve created the perfect brownie. It’s soft, delicious and super nutritious and with 15g of hemp protein it’s that little treat you no longer have to feel guilty about.
Emily Crisps – Crunchy Sweet Potato, Carrot And Beetroot
The crisp game has got boring. There I said it. So when I find a new company that are doing something a little different, trying something new it gets me excited. Emily Crisps is one such company. With a strong philosophy that believes that snacking should be fun, nutritious and tasty, Emily makes quality crisps with a crackle and crunch from her own favourite veg. At the minute we’re loving her vegetable crisps that blend together rich flavour with a noticeable crunch of sweet potato, carrot and beetroot.
Fentimans – Sparking Lime And Jasmine
Brewing botanically beverages since 1905, Fentimans know a little something about putting together the perfect soft drink. Although we recommend you try them all, we can’t get enough of their Sparking Lime & Jasmine drink. With an initial bitterness that refreshes the palate, the blend is quickly balanced by the Hyssop, Lime Flower and Juniper Berries offering a botanical sweetness that you’ll just love. As well as tasting great, it also smells good too with an aroma created through a mix of botanical infusions including white jasmine flowers.
Dragonfly Tea - Garden Mint And Verbana
Sometimes you just want to relax. Take your shoes off, put your feet up and take the time to enjoy a bit of peace and quiet. In typical English fashion, the perfect accompaniment to a moment of mindfulness is a cup of tea, and we couldn’t recommend Dragonfly Tea more, especially their Garden Mint and Verbana mix bags. They’re a refreshing caffeine free infusion of peppermint, rounded with a hint of aromatic lemon verbena that’ll help your troubles just melt away.
S’Well – El Royale S’well Bottle
A good bottle is hard to find. We know that and have sought to bring you the best in beverage holding design. That’s where we came across American bottle manufacturers S’well. Each bottle is tripled walled to create a condensation-free exterior, is functional keeping cold drinks at their desired temperature for up to 24 hours and are so beautifully designed you’ll want to buy them all. We’re particularly fond of their El Royale bottle which features a design brimming with exotic foliage of irises and tulips against a moody black backdrop.
Ace & Tate
Some of us need glasses. It’s a fact of life. If you want to live in a full HD world you may have to put on a pair of frames. If you want to look stylish doing so Amsterdam based Ace & Tate are the ones to call. Bringing the laidback vibes of their hometown to the world of glasses design, they provide prescription glasses that you’ll never want to take off and best of all they won’t break the bank with sets starting off at just £98.
LAMY scribble pall
Remember when you were handed your first mechanical pencil? You pressed that eraser non-stop, waiting to see if the lead would ever end. They were happy times but now you’re more mature and require a pencil that matches your new grown up outlook. Enter the LAMY scribble pall. Designed by the late Swiss designer Hannes Wettstein, the LAMY scribble pall boasts a distinctive ergonomic form, covered in matt black plastic and fitted with a palladium finish. Perfect for taking notes, sketching and looking stylish.
Baron Fig – Raspberry Honey Confidant
Baron Fig is a new kind of notepad that's been designed with an underlying focus on simplicity, usefulness and community. In their limited edition Raspberry Honey notebook they don’t stray far from this ideology, but build upon it by also including an illustrated short story by California-based artist Geoff Gouveia. With 192 pages to fill with your own ideas and sketches, Raspberry Honey is the perfect recipe of ingenuity and style that we know you’ll love.
kikki.K - 2018 A5 Weekly Diary: Sweet
Sweet is definitely the word we’d use to describe Swedish designers kikki.K’s 2018 diary offering. Filled with hand illustrated stickers it’s sure to put a smile on your face on a daily basis. You shouldn’t get it just for aesthetics though – it’s also highly efficient. With a monthly calendar, a great life-management space at the back, and designated “wishlist” spaces and much, much more, this diary will help you get organised and get happy in equal measure.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #21.
When you visit Amsterdam you get a sense of a city that is truly alive. With cultural hotspots at every turning, the Netherlands capital is a creative hub where anything seems possible no matter the time of a day. It never sleeps and is never shocked, forever taking everything in its stride with a laid-back and undoubtedly cool swagger. This is no more epitomised by the city’s beating heart: the infamous Red Light District. Filled with a myriad of eye-catching shop fronts offering coffee, food, marijuana and (for the right price) an unlimited number of sexual activities, the RLD is a tourist hotspot renowned for being the land of endless possibilities. Although thanks to Red Light Radio, the area is starting to put together a new identity; the land of airwave excellence.
Born from the local government’s attempt to gentrify the area known for raucous behaviour, Red Light Radio is based in a refurbished (and no longer in use) brothel. The brainchild of Hugo van Heijningen and Orpheu de Jong, the station has called the RLD its home since the stations inception in 2010. With thousands of visitors flocking to this stretch of the city each year, the sight of a fully clothed DJ working the decks at all hours, squashed amongst one of the many streets of infamous windows could be a cause for concern for anyone that’s spent the day in one of the city’s coffee shops.
Although to some its existence is a little known secret, Red Light Radio has truly blown up in recent years, becoming not only Amsterdam’s best radio station, but one of the premier stations in the whole of Europe. Showcasing local and international DJ’s as well as hosting live performances from some of the biggest names across genres as diverse as House and Disco to Afro Beat, Black Metal and Punk, the station has streamed its artists worldwide and in the process attracted an international audience and the critical acclaim that comes with it. In 2015 their meteoric rise from a single listener station to continental airwave behemoth was recognised when they beat the best stations from around Europe to be crowned Mixcloud’s Best Online Radio Station. This success has been beneficial for the group, allowing the team to take their eclectic brand of artists on the road. They've performed at prestigious festivals like SXSW and even spun their signature sounds in far off and distant lands like Russia and China. Not exactly the typical destinations for a DJ but that in itself highlights the pragmatism of the whole endeavour.
The idea to start a radio station had been rattling around in Hugo’s brain for some time, with the city being renowned for its eclectic musicality, the concept was there it just needed some physical inspiration to help it come to fruition. It was on a trip to New York where Hugo found what was needed. Witnessing Manhattan’s famous East Village Radio which broadcasts from a street level studio on 21 First Avenue at East 1st Street, Hugo knew what he had to do. With drastic changes announced for his homeland’s most famous series of streets everything fell into place and Red Light Radio was born. Now they had a venue, it was time to make it truly theirs. The station’s now iconic studio space is bathed in a dim red glow and adorned with hundreds of stickers and posters. Broadcasted over the internet via a live webcam, this somewhat cramped area has become the visual identity of the musical movement the station is promoting, that great music can be found anywhere and nothing should distract from it. That’s why if you check out a list of their alumni they’ve been able to attract big international artists, with everyone from Seth Troxler to The Gaslamp Killer and Mac de Marco spending some time there, but they’ve also supported smaller names as well as artists and DJs from the surrounding area. For the Red Light Radio team it has always been about the music. This has paid off dramatically as eschewing mainstream appeal and instead going for musical variety has set them apart from their fellow musical peers from the beginning, helping them stand out in the crowded world of online radio and build a cult following of listeners.
This ever increasing non-mainstream fan group has been especially appealing to like-minded brands, such as Converse, meaning the team can keep the red light glowing a little bit longer. In late 2012, they held their first Converse Red Light Session, which saw a whole army of musicians play a number of intimate sessions in their little studio to a small audience plus anyone who chose that opportune moment to peer through the window. Their success has even allowed them to expand. Teaming up with Tako Reyenga and Abel Nagengast they were able to turn a recently vacant window next door into Red Light Records. From this base they’re able to promote their favourite artists that little bit more by selling records as well as merchandise bearing the stations instantly recognisable logo. With every shirt, badge and tote sold they’re increasing a word of mouth following that will only ever grow as tourists from far and wide swarm on the RLD.
When they finally return home they’ll miss those famous streets. Reminiscing about their time there they’ll plan their next adventure. That is when they’ll tune in to Red Light Radio, keen to get a glimpse at that Amsterdam aesthetic coupled with a beautiful soundtrack. The array of artists on show will expand the listeners’ mind as much as what they bought in the coffee shops. Until they take their headphones off they’re back there amongst the city of red light. In an internet awash with different sounds, Red Light Radio is the little slice of Amsterdam available online.
You can listen to Red Light Radio anytime by visiting www.redlightradio.net/
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #20.
Artists are often enigmas, eschewing all attempts from the media to explain their art or themselves. There was one artist that was in different, in every single way: Salvador Dalí. In his autobiography he writes with complete sincerity how he felt about himself, "Every morning upon awakening, I experience a supreme pleasure: that of being Salvador Dalí, and I ask myself, wonderstruck, what prodigious thing will he do today, this Salvador Dalí”.
With no sign of modesty, a notable infatuation in the bizarre complete with his less than common upbringing and later life, the man’s existence was even more surreal than his work. "Surrealist" fitted him so well that it could be argued that he outgrew it, managing to transcend the title. For some surrealism was just an artistic movement, but for Dalí it was an all-encompassing lifestyle.
Although born in 1904, the seeds of strange in the artist’s life can be traced back three years earlier. In 1901, his older brother, also named Salvador was born. Unfortunately his life lasted just 22 months, dying of gastroenteritis just nine months before the birth of his new sibling. Upon learning she was to be having another son, Dalí’s mother decided to give her second son his late brother’s name. An odd gesture in itself, the act did have spiritual undertones. When the second Dalí was five years old his parents took him to his brother’s grave, where his parents informed him he was the reincarnation of his late brother. This is said to have had a great psychological effect on the man, highlighted by his later work which contained allusions to the dead child.
The trend of abnormality continued through adolescence. In his autobiography he writes how he routinely threw himself down the stairs, explaining that “(t)he pain was insignificant, the pleasure was immense”. These acts of masochism weren’t saved for just himself though. He once pushed his childhood friend off of a 15-foot bridge and, while his friend lay injured, he nonchalantly proceeded to eat some cherries instead of seek help.
Showing talent as a young artist and probably to discourage the young man pushing anyone else off a bridge, his mother encouraged him to seek artistic endeavours. His gift was quickly noticed and he hosted his first public exhibition at the age of just 15. Attempting to further his studies he later attended art school but chose not to complete his studies, refusing to show his work in the final show announcing that none of the professors were competent enough to review him. His reasoning for leaving was not entirely ideological though. Whilst undertaking his degree he was financially supported by his father, this would end as soon as he finished a degree and so he moved to Paris and continued to be financed by his father. Cash was reason enough for self-sabotage.
Although his legacy is survived through his influential work and his surreal outlook on life, Dalí is renowned for his pursuit of money. A starving artist he would never be. André Breton coined the nickname "Avida Dollars”, an anagram of Salvador and a reference to his greed. He sought out jobs anywhere, from designing the famous Chupa Chups lollipops logo and the 1969 Eurovision logo to appearing in ads for Lanvin chocolates.
He also knew how to hang on to his money. Well aware that nobody would ever cash a cheque adorned with an original Dalí sketch, the artist would generously offer to pay when dining with large parties. When he had the waiter’s full attention he would adorn the cheque with an illustration and his signature. The cheque would go uncashed added to the restaurant’s decor and Dalí would get away with not paying the bill. Later when he was diagnosed with skin cancer in 1972, he used this technique to avoid medical bills. His own staff were not immune to this trick either. Instead of payment, he would give them his works of art. Although at the time that couldn’t pay their bills, many have since cashed in on them later in life with their value skyrocketing into the millions.
A life full of controversy and sensation is hard to sum up in one short article, with the Spanish surrealist being the true embodiment of a renaissance man. With a gift for gregarious stunts, money-making product endorsements and all-eyes-on-me attitude he was the ultimate show-off and if it wasn’t for his immense talent that is what he would be remembered for. Instead that is just a small part of the man known as Salvador Dalí, the man who made himself unforgettable.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #19.
Cast your minds back to the heady days of 2012. London hosted the Olympics, there was widespread panic over the Mayan Calendar and three American men launched a campaign to make Ugandan warlord Joseph Kony the most infamous person in the world with the help of a hashtag.
The leader of the Lord’s Resistance Army, a decades-old guerrilla group, Kony had been indicted for numerous crimes against humanity: among them, kidnapping tens of thousands of children to use as sex slaves and soldiers. The campaign against Kony was led by Invisible Children, a small non-profit founded in 2004 to raise awareness of the LRA. The organisations main tactic was a 30-minute documentary film, posted to Facebook and zealously promoted through Kony 2012–branded profile photos paired with fervent calls to action.
Within six days of its release, Kony 2012 had racked up more than 100 million views, making it, at the time, the most watched viral video in web history. Teens who had previously been numb to images of starving African children were shocked by the film’s heart-wrenching footage and drawn in by the relatable first-person narration of Jason Russell, one of the co-founders of Invisible Children. The plight of the Ugandan children was unconscionable; luckily, thanks to Kony 2012, there was something each of us could do.
We could share the video on Facebook. We could tweet at celebrities. We could add our names to a Stop Kony pledge that bound us to do nothing in particular. We could sign up for recurring monthly donations and if we were truly committed to helping stop Kony’s child-soldier camps, we could buy the $30 Kony 2012 signature “action kit”.
Did it work? Results are mixed. Invisible Children's aim was to raise money and awareness of Kony’s crimes, which it did, collecting $5 million in the first two days of the campaign. It also managed to reach the conscience of the elite. Oprah Winfrey donated $2 million. Bill Gates tweeted the hashtag; Rihanna shared the video. But did it work as a source for change? Well the conflict in Uganda is still ongoing and Kony is still at large.
The following year saw the next hashtag inspired political movement, with the creation of #BlackLivesMatter. The instigator was Alicia Garza, utilising the call for action on her Facebook page in response to the acquittal of George Zimmerman, the man who gunned down Trayvon Martin. Since then it has become a banner used in the digital and real world by organisations and millions of individuals, loosely and tightly related, all attempting to bring change.
The major difference between Kony 2012 and the Black Lives Matter movement is who was in charge. The latter was created and led by people directly affected by the issues they addressed: gun violence, deportation, racism, and police brutality. These leaders used social media to tell their own stories in their own words. Supporters that shared these experiences felt justification for their own outrage and their plight was seen as one of many, not one of the few. Kony 2012 filtered the plight of Ugandan child soldiers through the eyes of Jason Russell and Invisible Children, who imposed their own ideas for appropriate intervention. Their targets, a population of impressionable youths raised in the digital age ate it up. It was easy to get involved with the Kony 2012 campaign without knowing much about the Ugandan conflict; in fact, the simplistic nature of the whole campaign hinged on the fact few people knew and even fewer would research further once the video had reached its conclusion. This ease of assimilation played a part in the campaigns success and later its stagnation.
Thanks in part to the work of Kony 2012, a hashtag became a legitimate motivating force behind a campaign. Political movements can be created with just a cause and a smartphone. The digital age is now one of change, with each retweet being considered a calls for arms, a charge for the barricade. Welcome to the age of internet activism.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #19.
Conspiracy theories have interested men and women for generations, infiltrating a country’s national discourse and turning the heads of many. Often these theories can maintain a core following through playing on people's innate paranoia and general mistrust towards a single being or a group. Left to their own devices these theories generally have a short shelf life, either hastily disproven or just generally being ignored by the masses until they're eventually forgotten, leaving a mild legacy summed up in a rarely visited Wikipedia page.
Longevity, in the age of Google fact checking, is still a possibility though. Even today, many years after both events have taken place, the truth behind the 1969 moon landings and the assassination of John F Kennedy is still often the cause for discussion for frequenters of internet message boards and small pub gatherings. Conspiracy theories that have managed to maintain an everlasting presence within the public consciousness usually have one thing in common: they can be traced back to ongoing political unrest at the time. These theories thrive and grow when they find common ground and become linked with people's anger and mistrust of certain groups, which if you really think about it, is what political opponents do in the run-up to every single election – attempt to turn their opposition into figures of contempt, becoming nothing more than pantomime villains.
Take the recent US election; in which the much maligned Republican candidate Donald Trump faced off against the equally maligned Democrat candidate Hilary Clinton in a battle to become the least respected president elects ever. Media outlets followed the candidates’ each and every move, reporting on every speech and reviewing every finite detail of what was said in the hope of finding that one crumb that would set social media ablaze and set the theorists minds racing. Reporters were in luck, as the 2016 Presidential campaign became possibly the most controversial election race of all time – and when there’s controversy, conspiracy is never far to follow.
What was strange about this election was that the conspiracies weren’t consigned to one particular political parties. Moving from the fringes of the political spectrum, the conspiracies were now becoming an important tool in their campaign arsenals, with high profile leaks from both sides being utilised in an attempt to galvanise supporters. Alt-right supporters decided to focus on #Pizzagate, which revolved around the WikiLeaks leaked emails of Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta which were allegedly written in a code which when cracked detailed links to human trafficking and connecting a number of restaurants in the United States and members of the Democratic Party with a fabricated child-sex ring. Gung-ho left supporters chose #Russiagate as their cause, which alleges that the Russian President Vladimir Putin, personally ordered an "influence campaign" to denigrate and harm Clinton's electoral chances and potential presidency utilising disinformation, data thefts, leaks, and social media trolls in an effort to give an advantage to Trump.
There was a noticeable hike of interest in these sort of theories during the last American political campaign, mainly due to the rise of social media and the celebrity status that political commentators received. Once relegated to the murky corners of the internet, political conspiracy theories are now front and centre, with every new one trending worldwide in a matter of hours and then consumed by supporters and rejected whole-heartedly by opponents. Discussion on these sort of topics is now instantaneous meaning as soon as one is debunked or lost its use as a political tactic there’ll be another one discovered ready to join the cycle one again.
As social media becomes even more influential to the general public we will soon be warned about new theories every day, from a political figures’ secret dalliance with a neighbouring country to media outlets being targeted for hidden messages within articles. You never know where the next one will turn up, and isn’t that really, part of the fun!
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #18.
“A picture is worth a thousand words”. Ever since the first photograph was taken and printed in 1826 this much repeated adage has been confirmed, with the art of photography being used to tell a thousand different stories every single day. Photojournalism has been the catalyst for change with many photographers using their camera as a weapon in the struggle for social reform.
Possibly the greatest proponent for change was the American photographer Lewis Hine. Born in 1874 in Wisconsin, Hine didn’t start off as a photographer. After his graduation from the University of Chicago in 1901 he taught botany and nature studies at the Ethical Culture School in New York City. It was there, after his mentor Frank Manney suggested he use photography as a tool for his classes, that Lewis Hine as a photographer was born.
Accompanied by Manney, Hine’s set out on his first project: to highlight the social conditions faced by the immigrants that recently moved to Ellis Island. He was urged by his partner to portray the newcomers with a sense of dignity and self-worth, as an attempt to combat the recently increasing anti-immigrant sentiments voiced by the Ellis Island natives. Think of it as a pre-internet Humans Of New York. This ability to highlight the beauty amongst the melancholy grew to be a major feature of Hine’s work and it became his strongest tool when trying to change the opinion of the masses in later life.
These early works highlighted a burgeoning talent, and one Hine’s was eager to follow, choosing to quit teaching and devote his life to his new found craft. He soon received his first job as an investigative photojournalist with the National Child Labor Committee. It was in this role where he could continue shining a light on those that needed it, but this new role wasn’t without its challenges. Tasked with photographing children in coal mines in Pennsylvania and cotton mills in South Carolina, he often posed as a Bible salesman or a life insurance agent to gain entry, then slipped away before he could be discovered and beaten up. His years of being a teacher coupled with his gentle demeanour allowed children to feel at ease with him and so he was able to gain valuable information about their working hours and the environment they lived in which he passed on to his employers. This information paired with his photos made visible the long-ignored plight of the working children. His work played an important role in the movement to enact federal and state child labour laws which culminated in the Fair Labour Standards Act, which included strong protections for children.
Although his work would go on to have an everlasting effect on the children of America, after leaving the NCLC, the 1930s were tough for Hine. His brand of photographing sociological concern had fallen out of fashion. The onset of the Depression only reduced the chance for him to find decent work. Luckily he had friends in high places and when the publicist for the Empire State Building called. This new project saw Hine’s take what would become his most well-known photograph as he literally scaled to new heights. Hoisted 100 stories in the air in an open steel box rigged to a wire he was able to join the workers amongst the clouds, managing to capture images that no one had seen before. He sought to interpret adult labour as a source of dignity and pride and to emphasize that humans, rather than machines, were the true producers and he went to extremes to do this.
His work capturing the “sky-boys” would be his final hurrah. In Hine's last couple of years with his financial difficulties beginning to mount he lost his home, had to apply for welfare and ultimately his love for the craft. Unfortunately he died as destitute as anyone who ever sat for his lens. After his death his Empire State photos would go on to fetch tens of thousands of dollars and his work highlighting the struggle faced by children would become invaluable. Although he was not a rich in any monetary sense, he had a wealth of talent and drive to do what’s right and the legacies he’s left behind is worth a whole lot more.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #18.
The beginnings of punk rock are contentious and often furiously debated. This is in part due to the subjective nature of music, with different parties having different definitions for what punk rock is and also because the foundations of the genre can be traced to several places.
Although often thought to be a British invention with bands like The Sex Pistols (we’ll get to them later) the genre actually has its roots across the Atlantic in America. With 60s garage bands like The Sonics utilising a raw sound in their music that had not yet been heard before, it’s these bands that made proto-punk that can be classed as the first floor on the tower of Punk. The second stage of punk sees groups like The Stooges enter the fray. Evolving on the work of their predecessors they added the style and swagger that we’ve become accustomed to. Stretching the tower analogy further with the third block and we come across the architect of pretty much the rest of the building: Malcolm McLaren.
Born in 1946 London, McLaren’s upbringing was unsurprisingly unconventional. He was raised and home-schooled by his grandmother who had a penchant for counter-culture slogans and a general distaste for the royal family, both ideas her grandson carried on with a great degree of success. After attending various art schools the budding entrepreneur left education in 1971. That same year he acquired a retail space in London which he ran with his girlfriend, the then unknown Vivienne Westwood. The store took on a variety of names before finding its most famous moniker, SEX. With each new name came a new style but with SEX the punk power couple had found something they could really sell. As Johnny Rotten later commented the duo would “sell anything to any trend that they could grab onto” and with this new style they’d picked a fruitful one. To help promote their new enterprise it was decided they would form a band who would wear SEX couture and thus the Sex Pistols were born. Drummer Paul Cook and guitarist Steve Jones were customers at the store, whilst original bassist Glen Matlock worked there as a shop assistant. The frontman was harder to find. Requiring swagger, a quick wit and the ability to model the look crafted by Westwood, McLaren ran auditions. In John Lydon later renamed Johnny Rotten they’d found the perfect man. The management continued to tinker and soon Matlock had departed. When Sid Vicious was named his replacement, it’s like the band had found the missing piece of the puzzle. Although he could barely play his instrument he embodied the Punk movement – an anti-establishment stance and a commitment to causing chaos. Although their discography consists of just one studio album, they are revered for the way in which they’ve shaped their musical successors.
An example of their ability to inspire their audience can be found by analysing their most famous gig, at Manchester’s Lesser Free Trade Hall. As the mythology of the gig has grown over time, thousands have claimed to be in attendance. In reality only around forty actually were, but it’s made up of a pretty good group. Those in attendance include The Fall’s Mark E Smith, members of The Buzzcocks and The Clash and possibly Johnny Rotten’s biggest rival for causing controversy: Morrissey. Morrissey formed The Smiths six years after attending the Lesser Free Trade Hall gig so no one’s really sure if it did have an effect on the precocious frontman. One person it did have a lasting effect on was Joy Division’s Peter Hook. The very next day he bought a bass guitar and announced to his dad that he was going to form a punk band. Although sparsely attended, the aftershocks of this gig can be felt through the bands that were not only influenced by the Sex Pistols but the bands that evolved from those in attendance.
With Joy Division and The Smiths being loved by what seems to be every teenager up and down the country since their respective inceptions it could be argued that the legacy of punk lives on through those that it influences. Punk is dead is an oft decreed phrase but with new artists gaining inspiration from the genres forefathers it could be argued that Punk never properly died, it was just reincarnated.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #17.
A controversial Republican figure has been elected to sit in the White House. Tensions between the USA and its fellow superpowers are beginning to rise, with some political analysists proclaiming a third world war could soon begin. A heavy reliance on fossil fuels, a level of contamination in the nation’s water supply and rampant urban decay throughout the major cities, environment scientists are voicing their concern that America is beginning to crumble but their pleas for action are falling on deaf ears.
The above describes the national situation in America in 1972, but with the election of President Trump, fractious and unstable relations with heavily weaponised countries, the close to three year-long and still ongoing water crisis in Flint, Michigan and the ever widening gap between the social classes you’d be forgiven for believing it’s 2017. For forty-five years we’ve seemingly all been Bill Murray, trapped in the environmental equivalent of Groundhog Day, with the same thing happening over and over again with no sign of change on the horizon.
In 1972 the newly created Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) attempted to record the changes in the environment in the hope that plans could be made to slow down and eventually stop the onslaught of degradation. The EPA announced the monumental task will take the form of a photo-documentary project known as DOCUMERICA. The results of the project were truly staggering. Lasting almost six years and with the help of 71 photographers over all fifty states DOCUMERICA contained over 22,000 photos.
The photographers worked geographically, choosing their subjects based on where they lived with some areas of focus being provided by the EPA. This approach to documenting the subjects created somewhat of a living map, highlighting an area’s specific environmental problem in immense detail. The photographers were also tasked with documenting how Americans were living within these issues, or as the director of the project, Gifford Hampshire put it, he not only sought to obtain images depicting environmental issues but also Americans “doing their environmental thing”. It is in these sections of the project, where we see how the person is interacting within their changing surroundings that the gravity of the project is realised. Observing the effects of urban decay within the housing projects of Chicago, juxtaposed with the fuel shortages terrorising cities like Portland, Oregon underline the true vastness of the nation and the range of problems they faced at the time.
These more personable images provide us with a snapshot of life in this time both for the subject and indeed the photographer. With the geographic approach we are not only seeing what the subject is living through but what the photographer is seeing on a day-to-day basis. Their lens becomes our portal into their world. Because of this each section of the project is different, each offering glimpses into different stories.
Take for example the photographer based in Chicago’s South Side who recorded the aforementioned degradation. In 1982 John H White won the Pulitzer Prize for Photojournalism for his “consistently excellent work on a variety of subjects”. A decade earlier he was working for the EPA, capturing the struggles the African American community were facing, like unemployment and cramped housing. Through his images we see the State way Gardens High-rise Housing Project. We see the Robert R Taylor complex of low income houses that were known as home for over 25,000 people. We see a lot of negativity, but thankfully there is positivity that also shines through. We see a black woman sitting on her porch proudly surveying her rose garden. We see young children playing, their happiness forever documented. We see Isaac Hayes performing at the “Black Expo” at the International Amphitheatre, promoting the idea that their surroundings shouldn’t define them and that they are capable of reaching their goals. Through each photographer’s project we’re treated to a kaleidoscopic portrait of their little slice of America.
The startling aspect of the DOCUMERICA project is that apart from changes in fashion very little has changed in the forty-five years since these images were first taken. It cannot be denied that work has been done in an attempt to reverse the problems caused by the mistakes of the past but the fact that there are still examples regularly occurring in 2017 highlight the real enormity of the problems. Although each new leader has promised to bring major change none have been able to convert a population striving for the American Dream to a country that is living it.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #17.
In Neil deGrasse Tyson’s 2004 book The Sky Is Not the Limit: Adventures of an Urban Astrophysicist he quips that the “dinosaurs are extinct today because they lacked opposable thumbs and the brainpower to build a space program”. In a President Trump/Post Brexit world it seems, at least if you follow certain media outlets, that the chance of humans soon becoming extinct is an ever increasing possibility. So, to stop the human race falling into a dystopia previously seen on the big screen in films like Mad Max and Wall-E we have to do two things: all purchase mittens to protect our digits and focus our energies into exploring the universe.
At the forefront of space exploration has always been NASA. Although it was the Russians to send the first person into space, with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin launching into orbit in 1961, it was the Americans who put Neil Armstrong on the moon eight years later and in 2017 their plans for investigating the universe have only gotten more and more grandiose. Unfortunately the scientists will have to amend their plans to fit a smaller budget, with their budget of $19 billion being a $300 million reduction on last years. This hasn’t affected their vision though, with 2017 seeing the next stage of their planned missions to gather further information about Mars and Saturn. The red planet is seen as the destination of the future and in late 2017 NASA’s Space Launch System, the most powerful rocket in the world, will be entering its “Green Run” phase in the hope that it will be able to carry the Orion spacecraft on a successful unmanned mission in 2018. If the SLS passes the tests it will take Orion 40,000 miles beyond the moon, which is further than any spacecraft built for humans has ever gone. With manned missions to Mars scheduled for 2020, NASA need the SLS to pass this year’s tests to remain on track and in an industry where every change to the schedule can be extremely costly in a monetary and time sense it is vital they do.
2017 also sees end of the thirteen year-long Cassini mission. The Cassini space probe has been exploring Saturn since 2004 and in November 2016, the probe went into the penultimate stage of its life, what NASA called its “Ring-Grazing Orbits”, which was designed to sample the particles that make up Saturn’s famous rings. In April, it will break new ground by descending even closer to the planet and in an area that is yet to be explored: the space between Saturn and its rings. Once its final task is complete it will go on a self-destructive path to Saturn’s surface. NASA have announced the probe will be taking photographs as commits the spaceship equivalent of suicide, which when you think about it is rather morbid until you realise it’s for science, and that it’s a machine.
With all the attention on NASA and their Eastern European counterparts a new country will be furthering their attempts to reach for the stars in 2017 as China’s own space agency the CNSA aim for a record 30 space missions this year. Although many of the missions being conducted have already been done by more esteemed spacefaring nations, it shows that space exploration is clearly on the country’s agenda and once they’ve conquered these challenges they can aim for more ground-breaking missions. This year they’ll launch their first-ever cargo spacecraft, headed for the space laboratory which was launched last year. In 2018, CNSA aims to land a rover to the far side of the moon, a first for humankind. And in 2020, it plans to land a rover on Mars, a feat that has been attempted by Russia and other European nations, but only successfully accomplished by the United States. Like their American counterpart 2017 is the beginning of very big things.
With country’s aiming to go further and further into the universe it begs the question on what 2017 has in store for space tourism. Unfortunately just yet it seems there’s not a lot planned. After Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShip Two suffered a fatal crash, Richard Branson has seemed reluctant to attempt another manned test run. In the 14 years the Virgin Galactic programme has been running they are yet to reach outer space. This highlights the enormity of the task at hand. Amazon’s Jeff Bezos and SpaceX’s Elon Musk have also had attempts to enter the private spaceflight race with similarly poor results.
2017 will be an exciting year for space exploration as we attempt to further our knowledge of the known universe and with other country’s joining the fold, it makes the possibility of private spaceflight possible so that one day we may have the chance to go to infinity and beyond.
This article was originally featured in tmrw magazine #13.
Amsterdam is famous for being a city where you can see and get anything your heart desires. The local government’s liberal opinion on sex and drugs in addition to being a well-respected city of culture attracts swathes of tourists from all over the world every year. Having visited Amsterdam twice as of writing, I’m especially aware of the number of weird and wonderful museums the city has to offer. With the city’s museums boasting themes as various as sex and prostitution to chess and cheese a visitor can spend just a few euros to learn all they can about a topic in between trips to the bars and coffee shops.
After already visiting some of the usual museums in our first visit my friend and I were looking into places to go on our second trip. After googling different places my man Sam came along a museum that was a little different. Sharing a name with the Jimi Hendrix Experience’s final album and focusing on fluorescent art, Electric Ladyland seemed the perfect choice. After a short walk to the museum, we joined a small group and met the owner of the gallery, an American called Nick Padalino. After a change of footwear (you have to wear special slipper like shoes to avoid damage to the art) you climb some of the steepest stairs in the city the group were now in the middle of the museum. Looking round, Nick had curated quite a collection of fluorescent artefacts as well as created some of its own. Although the collection stands out, everyone that has visited Electric Ladyland will have come away thinking one thing shone the most – Nick Padalino. Blown away by his charisma as well as in-depth knowledge of the subject I wanted to learn more about the man as well as the history of the museum so vowed that one day I would interview them. Thanks to TMRW I got the chance to do just that.
Born in Brooklyn, New York in 1957 a young Nick was surrounded by art. “My aunt was a commercial artist and lived downstairs from my family and nurtured my love for art. For as long as I can remember I have been drawing and have had a deep fascination for colour. Growing up in the 1960s, fluorescent colours were all around, in advertising and posters. I had already had a deep love for colour, but fluorescent colour was like another dimension added. I then began using fluorescent colours in 1969 after seeing and buying black light posters and a black light. This developed into experimenting with very cheap poor-quality fluorescent ‘poster-paints’ and using clear water-based glue as a medium to try and prevent these 1960s Fluorescent poster-paints from falling off the painting and onto the floor the next day when they had dried”.
Already well versed in the creation of art at such a young age, Nick endeavoured to further himself artistically by surrounding himself in the work that had gone before him as well as a completing degree in Fine Art and a degree in Graphic Design in the late 1970s. Although colour had always been his main inspiration, the work of the masters before him were also cited as influences on his creative output; “I have many inspirations, but the most important inspirations for me have been Jackson Pollock and Paul Gauguin. Jackson Pollock because he went further than any other artist in my opinion, and Paul Gauguin because of his use of colour as the subject point of the painting - colour was the most important part of Gauguin’s Art, and remained that way until he died in 1903. Their focus on art is something that inspires me. Gauguin for example was what they term today the ‘Proto-Hippie’ - leaving his wife and children and good paying job in the stock exchange in Paris to go to Tahiti and paint his dream. Michelangelo is another inspiration due to his focus on his craft, he was an artist driven all his life by his art until nearly 90. As well as visual artists, I have to add the musicians Jimi Hendrix and The Beatles as major inspirations in my life a well”.
Although there is evidence the effect these artists had on Nick’s work when you visit the museum, citing the guitar God Jimi Hendrix it is pretty apparent – as aforementioned the museum shares a name with the final studio album Hendrix recorded and released before his death.
The album was released in 1968, when Nick was young but the album obviously had a profound effect, as 18 years later that Nick along with his partner Michèle Delage opened “Electric Lady” Art Gallery. Then exactly 12 years later, April 19th 1999, opened “Electric Ladyland – The First Museum of Fluorescent Art”. As Nick goes on to discuss, the idea to open the museum was to extend his art and make it interactive. “[The museum] was actually brought about by the space needed to create a Fluorescent “Participatory” Environment that could be physically entered by visitors. The Fluorescent “Participatory” Environment is a piece I worked on for 7 years and one I created right in the museum. It took three years for construction with plastics and industrial materials being used on the structure of the environment itself, and a further 4 years was required to mix up hundreds of litres of fluorescent and phosphorescent paint by hand and then to apply it using various techniques including high temperature heat application. This is a 32 cubic meter art environment that is physically entered, and gives the opportunity for the audience to “participate” in the creation of art in a small way by having the ability to choose buttons to press in the environment, which then cause fluorescent minerals and paint to react. The museum is split into two sections, with one half being used for the FPE and the other is used for demonstrations. I have collected about 1000 kilos of natural Fluorescent minerals from all over the planet. As 19 year old Robert Switzer, the inventor of fluorescent paint in 1933, and his 17 year old brother Joseph Switzer – the “Day-Glo” brothers – discovered that when these minerals are added to basic chemicals they create what we know as fluorescent paint”.
It is when Nick is discussing the beginnings of fluorescent paint and the natural minerals that began the process that you see him truly enthused about the subject and if you ever have any questions, he is sure to have the answer thanks to his many years of research. Although due to the city’s history of art as well as deep rooted interest in stepping out of the norms, it’s certainly a little strange to see someone from New York open a museum across the world, although to Nick it seemed the obvious choice.
“Amsterdam is the only place I have ever lived where the people leave you alone! The Dutch people are interested in art, but also take particular interest in leaving each other in peace. There is very little aggression or violence in Amsterdam, and in short ‘you can live your dream’ without any thought of social interference or trouble in general. If the people in Amsterdam don’t like what you create in Art, Music, or any other area of creation, they do not make crude or abrasive comments as in most other parts of the world, but accept it as Art. I came to Amsterdam the first time in 1984 to visit my dream museum, the ‘Van Gogh Museum’. After only about 5 minutes of being in Amsterdam, I decided I wanted to live here the rest of my life. I made that decision 32 years ago!”
Anyone that has visited Amsterdam are likely to share Nick’s sentiments that it is a place like no other, just like its museum. Both the museum and the city it’s based in share a number of similarities but the main one being they are both hold beautiful and memorable treasures that everyone should experience at least once. Also after going to Electric Ladyland Museum, you’ll never look at rocks the same way again.
This article was originally featured on the One&Other Magazine website.
The National Portrait Gallery in partnership with the National Trust have announced a new art exhibition to arrive to Beningbrough Hall.
The winners of the 2013 Visitor attraction are proud to welcome some incredibly rare pieces that have a distinctive regal feel. There will be pieces created by the late pop artist Andy Warhol. His instantly recognisable photos of Queen Elizabeth, which utilised his famed photographic silkscreen technique shows the Queen in a portrait from here 1977 Silver Jubilee. The four prints are taken from his “Reigning Queens” collection. They are identifiable by their red background and the use of fragmentation via the overlay of graphic shapes. The use of graphic shapes a mainstay in Warhol’s work but in this collection it was purposefully done, to give it the specific Warhol feel. As he said in an interview with Barry Blinderman, “I really would still rather do just a silkscreen of the face without all the rest, but people expect just a little bit more. That’s why I put in all the drawing”.
It is not only famed pop artists that are on show though with works by fashion photographer Mario Testino. The Peruvian born Testino was rewarded with the Honorary Fellowship by the Royal Photographic Society, meaning his works are definitely a must see. His most famous piece will be on show, the photo of the late Princess Diana that was showcased in Vanity Fair. Taken five months before her death it is a reminder of what was lost. There are also Testino’s photos of Prince Charles and Prince William and Catherine Duchess of Cambridge’s engagement photo.
The theme of the newest royal union is evident with the announcement that the portrait of their young family, including Prince George will be open to the public for the first time. The photo, of Prince George’s christening was taken by London born fashion designer Jason Bell. With his work regularly showcased in Vanity Fair and Vogue, the chance to see his candid photo of Prince George for the first time is surely a memorable experience.
A more contemporary piece with a distinctive royal flavour is Chris Levine’s Lightness of Being. Now one of the most iconic pieces of the 21st century sees Queen Elizabeth II as we really see her, in an almost meditative state. Famously the photo was an accident though. With the artist commissioned to make a holographic portrait to commemorate the Isle of Jersey’s 800th year of allegiance, the Queen had to sit completely still for 8 seconds. Whilst she was being filmed she closed her eyes momentarily and this is when Levine closed the shutter. This rarely seen side of the Queen at peace is a truly amazing piece.
With the inclusion of art created by some of the world’s most iconic photographers and artists this is a must see event for anyone with a love for contemporary art or seminal royal pieces.
This article was originally featured on the One&Other magazine website.
In a world that’s seemingly clouded in grey, be it due to smog or dreary architecture, Art is seen as one of the few attempts at the world to bring some sort of light into the world, a beacon in the night. If art is seen as a saving grace it should be rewarded and that’s where Aesthetica’s Art Festival steps in.
Receiving nominations from around the world, the York based Art magazine has seen its festival go from strength to strength. This year has seen numerous pieces nominated all for the audience’s delectation. The nominations were whittled down to just one winner for each award, the student award and the main award.
The winner of the main award was German born artist Sybille Neumeyer. Here installation entitled Song for the Last Queen is a lament on the endangerment of bees. Her piece is comprised of 7614 bees- which is just one eighth of a colony. The bees were collected from a naturally collapsed bee hive and were placed as black spots in honey, reminiscent of crochets balancing on a stave. The work was considered the favourite after gracing both the guide cover and the poster for the exhibition. The exhibition will not only contain Song for the Last Queen there will also be pieces exhibited by Ines Molina Navea, Elke Finkenauer, Deb Covell, Ingrid Hu, Julia Weissenberg, Amedeo Abello and Federico Morando. As well as these works there will be pieces from Harriet Lewars, winner of the student portion of the award.
Lewars’ piece entitled Frustum Super Planum Cum Filia Lyrae is a 3D sculpture which aims to explore the interface between art and music. The name meaning truncated cone with strings attached is exactly that. The strings allowed for audience participation, with those in attendance able to pluck them if they so wish which creates a piece that is not only visually interesting but also pleasing to ones ears.
With the Art Award going from strength to strength and the artists themselves receiving the tools to continue and master their specific craft, it is certainly an exciting time in the art world.
This article was originally featured on the One&Other Magazine website.
York based theatre company Pilot have announced a new logo as part of their rebrand. The company founded in 1981 by a group of students in Wakefield has been based in York since 2001. They have been an integral part of York’s theatre scene ever since.
The National Portfolio of Arts members are known for their innovative style of theatre with a big example being their portrayal of Blood + Chocolate which saw a cast of 200 volunteers aged between 8 and 74 take an audience of 300 armed with earphones around the city on a real life cinematic experience. This idea of participation is a key part of Pilot’s new brand. It relived the Christmas of 1914 by celebrating York’s chocolate making heritage along with the struggles of the inhabitants of York during the First World War. They also do productions indoor with their connection to York Theatre being regularly used.
It’s not only York based theatre though with Pilot sending a host of plays such as The Loneliness Of The Long Distance Runner and Running On The Cracks nationwide. They’ve also gone international producing shows in countries such as Slovakia, Portugal and Holland. The tours have garnered both critical and audience acclaim.
They are not tied down to just theatre as shown with their popular ShiftHappens conferences. In the past they have hosted talks with author Sir Ken Robinson, critic Howard Rheingold and Graeae Director and co-Director of The Paralympics Opening Ceremony, Jenny Sealey. In 2011 thy also brought the world renowned TED talks to York, with TEDxYork being a huge success.
There newest project sees them working in collaboration with Arts Organisation TheatreLiveStream.TV. This will see them stream various events online throughout the year. It has already had some success with their recent streaming of Blood + Orange and their six camera live stream of the York Mysteries which was in collaboration with the BBC and The Space.
When asked about the reason for the rebranding, Artistic Director Marcus Romer said that the rebrand was needed. “With the expansion we were no longer just a theatre company. People were confused why Pilot Theatre was running the councils live stream or the ShiftHappens talks. Theatre is still a part of it, but that’s not all we do”.
With a seemingly endless list of creative ideas and events, Pilot’s rebrand has come at a perfect time for them to capitalise and seamlessly bring their five elements of participation, theatre, international, learning, and online together.
This article was originally featured on the One&Other Magazine website.
The world of spoken word has slowly been creeping into the mainstream for a while. The new Kasabian album featured a verse from spoken word artist Suli Breaks and acclaimed poet and spoken word artist Kate Tempest has been nominated for the prestigious The Mercury Music award. In York there has been resurgence in the art with a series of events hosted throughout the city in the past few months.
The newest event to grace York is ‘Say Owt Slam’. The brainchild of two of York’s most renowned spoken word artists Stu Freestone and Henry Raby ‘Say Owt Slam’ it will be the first poetry lam York has held in three years. The event will consist of 15 poets who are given just three minutes to impress the crowd and the assigned judges with the grand prize being £30 and the bragging rights of being the winner of the inaugural ‘Say Owt Slam’. For the first event the 15 poets were found in just 12 hours. The judges will be made up of audience members with the head judge being a special quest. For the first event the head judge will be teacher turned spoken word artist Mark Grist. Mark Grist shot to fame when his rap battle with MC Blizzard went viral with it being viewed by almost 4.5 million people. As well as battle rap his spoken word has seen him receive numerous plaudits both as a solo act and as a part of the double act ‘Dead Poets’ with him playing Edinburgh Fringe almost annually. He was also given the prestigious title as poet laureate of Peterborough, which is claimed to be the first city in the country to have one.
The minds behind the event are well known in their field for work in York and around Britain. We asked the creators Stu and Henry about their newest project.
O&O: Why did you decide to start a poetry slam in York?
It started with a conversation Henry and I were having about it the different poetry slams happening around the UK. We felt although there was an outlet for spoken word & poetry in York, most events being held were more poetry based open mic nights as well as the odd headline shows by well-known poets such as Hollie McNish, Rob Auton and Kate Tempest.
This said to us, that there was definitely room in the scene for us to add a healthy competitive element whilst working as an encouragement to new writers to get out there and perform.
Henry's been involved in the poetry scene in Yorkshire for some years now, not only as a performer but as an organiser of shows. Helping to build the blocks to create a bigger and wider platform for creatives to get involved with, especially looking towards promoting the grassroots performers in and around York.
O&O: What’s your opinion on the spoken word scene in York?
The spoken word scene in York is actually bigger than I think people give it credit for.
Each month there are a series of events including the long running 'Spoken Word' night at the Exhibition run by Rose Drew, 'Speakers Corner' hosted by Andy Humphrey along with another long running night called 'Spokes' run by Dai Parsons, previously held at The Woolpack but since its closure it has found new residency at The Golden Ball. These have not only helped contribute to the scene itself but also spurned interest proceeding to more events to getting started. From an outside perspective it could be viewed as bit of an underground scene but it is slowly but surely making a name for itself and becoming a much needed breath of fresh air to York’s already vibrant and creative nightlife.
O&O: Will 'Say Owt Slam' become a regular occurrence?
We're definitely hoping that this will be the case. As it stands we are currently booking our next event at the same venue for late January, with a whole host of new slam poets as well as another highly regarded headline poet who has just confirmed which we're planning on revealing at the first event.
O&O: You have Mark Grist appearing, what can people expect to see from him?
Mark is a fantastic poet and former English teacher based is Peterborough. He has been prevalent on the spoken word scene for some time, becoming Poet Laureate of Peterborough in 2008. He proceeded to become Edinburgh Fringe 2010 Slam Champion, completed 2 national tours as well as revisiting the Edinburgh Fringe with shows in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.You can expect a highly innovative performance full of comedy and wit, guaranteed to keep you captivated with his own brand of poetic storytelling.
O&O: What are your hopes for the future of Say Owt Slam and the spoken word scene in York?
Ideally the aim for 'Say Owt Slam' would be hosting quarterly slams with a different set of slam poets for each event throughout the year, alongside a guest poet headliner.
Getting our name out there is also hugely important.
We want to make people are aware that York has its own poetry slam, and it's open to all spoken word performers whether they are first time or published writers.
In terms of the York spoken word scene, things can only keep growing. The current events going on in the city are already well populated and well received which is very positive.
We have had an overwhelming response to our first slam, showing us that there is definitely an interest in spoken word and poetry in the city. It's now just about building the buzz and creating more opportunities and events like this.
This article was originally featured on the One&Other Magazine website.
Michael O’Hare is a well-respected name in York gastronomy. With his bleached blonde hair and tattoos you’d expect him to be more accustomed with an electric guitar than a ladle. History shows us it is the latter though with his two previous York based establishments the Blind Swine and Cochon Aveugle leaving a lasting impression on the taste buds. With the announcement of his new restaurant The Man Behind The Curtain opening in Leeds around 9 May we decided to have a chat about his new place.
O&O: Why the name "The Man Behind The Curtain?
MOH: The full name is "The Man Behind The Curtain" a restaurant by Michael O'Hare. It’s a quote from the Wizard of Oz, "pay no attention to the man behind the curtain". The name came about during discussions with a friend about how people view restaurants and the importance of a figure head. A face if you like that people take comfort from. Celebrity chefs have become chain restaurants, it’s bizarre. You can eat at Marco Pierre White’s on a ship or in a department store or a grill room its ridiculous people go expecting to see that guy. Jamie’s Italian another example, truth be told there are much better grill rooms and Italian restaurants than either of those but the modern chef has become a brand. The man behind the curtain sounds like the most pretentious name in the world but it’s actually the opposite. Who is the man behind the curtain? Is it me the chef? I work within a team, it’s my team that execute the food/ the service etc. The restaurant will host guest chef evenings in which top chefs from the UK and Europe are invited to do a night in Leeds and in that case, they will become "The Man Behind The Curtain”.
O&O: What will make your new restaurant different to the Blind Swine?
MOH: The Blind Swine happened by mistake it was never intended to be a restaurant. it was a Rock Bar and by chance its popularity grew as a restaurant in a way I could never have expected but it still was never a restaurant. The new spot will be a standalone fine dining restaurant, a place that people dress up to go to, a sense of occasion that has been lost I feel. I think there's nothing better than people dressed smart in a restaurant it makes you feel good. The Man Behind The Curtain will be a restaurant you make an effort to go to and have an experience that will stay with you.
O&O: Is there anything you're keeping the same?
MOH: My hair will remain the same.
O&O: What will make you stand out from your other competitors?
MOH: Our food will make us stand out the style will change a lot. None of this boring Nordic copycat food that is penetrating the UK at the moment. There’ll be no stoneware or rustic wooden boards. We will focus our food like art and be progressive with it. Maybe we will make some mistakes I don’t know but originality wins in the end, right? It’s about time somebody did something different because if I see another chef put another picture of a herb they foraged on twitter I'm going to shoot myself .
O&O: Is the food a specific cuisine?
MOH: I don’t want to pigeonhole what we will do, I can’t say fusion because it’s not but i won’t limit myself. We will use any flavour, any ingredient and any technique we see fit. If that means it has an Asian influence then so be it or French or Spanish, whatever works for the dish. We are not bound by a conventional menu, it’s a creative freedom that comes from the knowledge of how things should be and not the blind adherence to the way things are.